THE ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LIBRARY SYSTEMS IN CHINA

Hong, Y., & Liu, L. (1987). The development and use of the Chinese classification system.International Library Review, 18, 47-60.

Hong and Liu have created a concise article aimed at the English-speaker interested in Chinese library classification systems. While many articles of this scope and topic use original language in Pinyin to identify major classification systems, Hong and Liu have translated everything to English, making the information easier to digest for the non-Chinese reader. Historical influences pepper the article, providing a backdrop and rationale for the ideological changes occurring during the creation of new classification systems. Lacking in many articles of this scope is the period prior to the introduction of the Dewey Decimal system, but Hong and Liu show how a devastated post-Opium War China looked to western technology to save them, and the resulting introduction of new fields of knowledge made the Four Division system’s inadequacies apparent. The paper is a bit outdated; written in 1985, it doesn’t quite have the grasp on how dominant and pervasive the CLBC (now commonly called the CLC) is in Chinese libraries. Hong and Liu seem to be very invested in western ideas, seeing them as integral to the creation of a competent system in China. They propose the introduction of Chinese classification classes in American library science programs, hoping that American library scholars will aid China in the development of a better system.

_________________________________________________________________________

Jiang, S. (2007). Into the source and history of Chinese culture: Knowledge classification in ancient China. Libraries and Cultural Record, 42(1), 1-20.

This detailed and extremely informative work strives to fill the void left by most Chinese library classification scholars, who tend to focus on contemporary issues and ignore ancient systems. Jiang’s descriptions of the different dynasties show how different regimes brought about various rules regarding intellectual activities, which affected the collection and organization of works. Though the dynasties differed greatly, all post-Qin Dynasties were bound together by Confucianism; as the prevailing government-sponsored ideology, Confucious’ Five Classics were the backbone of the social and political order for centuries. Noting the rise of intellectual freedom and the creation of library classification structures beginning with the Han Dynasty, Jiang illustrates the progression from Liu Xin’s Qi lue, all the way to Li Chong’s Yuan di shumu (Bibliography of Emperor Yuan’s Library), marking the long standing acceptance of hierarchical classification schemes. Jiang notes that beginning with Liu Xiang’s Bie lu in 26 B.C. until the adoption of contemporary classification systems in the 1900s, Chinese classification only underwent three phases, each manifest in a national bibliography. Jiang contends that library classification not only existed to organize books, but to reflect political and social issues; in ancient China, this was primarily steered by Confucianism.

_________________________________________________________________________

Li, L. (1991). A history of Chinese library classification: 1949-1991 (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(6A), 1707.

Li’s doctoral thesis is a landmark English-language report on Chinese library classification. In evaluating the Chinese Library Classification (CLC), Li outlines contemporary classification systems as well as ancient ones, providing a good historical overview. The second part of Li’s work is a literature review of the four periods of research on Chinese classification extending from 1949-1991, mostly focusing on Chinese-language studies. Finally, Li makes suggestions in optimizing the CLC, such as scholars providing more in-depth historical studies and utilizing foreign systems (such as the Dewey Decimal System, Library of Congress Classification, Colon Classification, and Universal Decimal Classification) in improving the CLC. Li fails to acknowledge the historical change from the Seven Epitomes to the Four Classes as a progression, instead viewing them as distinct systems. Her report is easy to read and does an excellent job of tracing the past to make suggestions for the future. A must read for any English-speaker researching the Chinese Library Classification.

_________________________________________________________________________

Lin, S. C. (1998). Bibliographic control and services. In Libraries and librarianship in China (pp.143-161). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Lin has created a readable account detailing the creation and standardization of central cataloging, union catalogs, and the Chinese National Bibliography (CNB), which utilizes the CN MARC. The standardization of documents, including not only cataloging but also the creation of the Chinese Thesaurus and the subsequent joining of the ISBN is also discussed, but it is quickly skimmed over. Lin showcases the importance of national bibliographies in creating classification systems both in ancient and modern China. Also of interest is the accounts of activity between 1911-1949 (during the war with Japan) and a description of the reconstruction period following the formation of the People’s Republic of China. The real power in Lin’s work is her ability to contextualize the impact historical events have on the bourgeoning Chinese classification systems, including her analysis of the Cultural Revolution’s stifling of Chinese library advancement.

_________________________________________________________________________

Liu, J. (1999). Review and prospect for centralized cataloging in China. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 28(2), 57-64.

Since the creation of Shanghai’s Yue-shen Literature Management Center in 1985, Chinese librarians have been working simultaneously with individual and centralized cataloging. In this system, a company works as both bookseller and cataloger, providing acquisitions as well as cataloging services. Jessica Liu’s succinct article adequately describes and advocates for the centralized cataloging system, noting not only the reduction in superfluous work and materials, but also the quality and authority that comes from a cataloging in a unified system. Liu postulates that China, who must take the lead in making sure Chinese bibliographic material is accessible to western nations, has the ability to create a cooperative cataloging system (the current trend in western countries) based on the already-existing centralized cataloging. This evolution could put Chinese catalogers ahead of the game, as cooperative cataloging is our present while centralized cataloging is the future. Liu’s theory is intriguing, but the actual reasoning of how centralized and cooperative cataloging complement one another is lost in the analysis.

_________________________________________________________________________

Liu, S. and Shen, Z. (2002). The development of cataloging in China. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 35(1/2), 137-154.

In their analysis of cataloging systems in China, authors Liu and Shen provide a very brief outline of the history of cataloging in China but focus most of their attention on the need for resource sharing and cooperative cataloging, and how these will require standardized online cataloging, especially in the form of union catalogs. Critical of a centralized cataloging’s limited range in providing services to only large cities, the authors do not address ways in which centralized systems could be reformed, instead focusing on adapting western cataloging practices. In showing the need to decentralize Chinese cataloging systems and move towards cooperative and internationally standardized systems, the authors take an in-depth look at the successes of the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS).

_________________________________________________________________________

Liu, X. (1993). The standardization of Chinese library classification. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 16(2), 41-54.

In showing the need for national standardization, Xiaochun Liu begins his proposal by outlining a very brief history of the attempts to adopt Chinese Library Classification (CLC) as the national classification system beginning in the early 1980s and the subsequent publication of the comprehensive “Chinese Library Classification” series. Standardization, Liu claims, can greatly impact the compatibility of automation, networking and resource sharing. Currently poised as the most popular classification system (it is used by over 94% of libraries/information systems in China), the author lays out the advantages of utilizing the CLC as the national standard. As far as standardization goes, 94% is already quite a high number and the need to further standardize seems like a non-issue at this point, though Liu’s desire to move towards complete standardization does hold significance. Those looking for information on the CLC should utilize this work; Liu does an excellent job of describing the highlights of the formidable system.

_________________________________________________________________________

Murphy, B. (2008, March). National library of China to add its records to OCLC WorldCat. OCLC News Releases. Retrieved March 1, 2008 from http://www.oclc.org/news/releases/20085.htm

This news release by the OCLC discusses the National Library of China’s plans to add its library records to OCLC’s WorldCat, which is the world’s largest online union catalog. Although Chinese language materials have been formerly cataloged by chinese academic libraries, as the NLC wields the largest collection in China and the fifth-largest collection in the world, the new additions are highly anticipated. The NLC estimates that some 1.5 million contributions will be added in 2008 alone. In order to accomplish this, software is currently being created that will allow the entry of chinese characters into WorldCat. Although short, Murphy’s piece also highlights some of the key OCLC contributions to libraries in China, such as the introduction of the CJK system for cataloging Chinese, Japanese and Korean language materials. As the mouthpiece of OCLC’s news page, Murphy is optimistic and doesn’t discuss possible pitfalls of this program. Even with this unreliability, this is a nice and succinct piece hinting at the future of Chinese-language materials in WorldCat.

_________________________________________________________________________

Niu, J. (2002). Building a national or international China bibliographic utility. OCLC Systems & Services, 18(4), 178-185

Niu’s short article is a call to action, a desperate plea for the Chinese government to build a national bibliographic utility. Though he brings up a few good points, the article lacks substance and support. Due to the lack of resource sharing and cooperative cataloging in China, Niu makes the assumption that there are three unfulfilling options to this dilemma: Purchasing bibliographic records from the National Library of China (NLC), joining the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS), or opting into OCLC WorldCat. He advocates most for writing bibliographic information in WorldCat for Chinese materials, but fails to notice that this doesn’t really tackle the issue of the lack of cooperative cataloging in China – it just opens up Chinese materials to the rest of the world. Niu ends noting that none of the systems currently in place are adequate, advocating instead for the government to build a new system. CALIS is an excellent system already in place that is small but steadily growing; because it is exclusive to academic libraries, Niu dismisses it quickly rather than thinking about ways of adapting the system already in place.

_________________________________________________________________________

Pong, J. & Cheung, C. (2006) Cataloging of Chinese language materials in the digital era: The cataloging standards and practices in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Journal of Library & Information Science, 32(1), 53-65.

In discussing the different cataloging standards in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, Pong and Cheung, librarians at City University of Hong Kong, lay out the need for standards that would enable the three regions to share bibliographic data, perhaps resulting in a sort of international union catalog for Chinese-language materials. China utilizes the Chinese Library Classification for most libraries, while Taiwan has adopted the Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries (CCL). As a bilingual nation, Hong Kong has adopted the Library of Congress Classification for most academic libraries and in creating original cataloging of Chinese-language materials, also contributes to OCLC’s WorldCat. The authors stress the need for cooperative cataloging of Chinese-language materials, but this is a difficult task; although they are all linked by their use of the Chinese language, they are very different nations with different needs. Pong and Cheung illustrate the barriers preventing the sharing of bibliographic data and advocate for international standards, but do not provide any clues on how to create standards while continuing to address the needs of local communities.

_________________________________________________________________________

Zhang, Q.Y., Liu, X. Sh., & Wang, D.B. (1996). Contemporary classification systems and thesauri in China. In Proceedings of the 62nd IFLA general conference. Retrieved January 27, 2008, fromhttp://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla62/62-qiyz.htm.

Zhang, et. al have put together a good starting point for those wanting to learn more about contemporary systems of classification in China. Providing a basic outline, the authors briefly describe the Chinese Classification System and Chinese Archive Classification, giving a brief mention of foreign classification systems (such as the Dewey Decimal Classification). A short discussion is also given to the creation and standards of the Chinese Thesaurus. The most interesting aspect of this article is the discussion of natural language searches and the Chinese word separation technique; because Chinese characters run together and can mean different things depending on where they are placed in a sentence, keyword searches have proved challenging, so the prospect of integrating natural language searches into information retrieval systems is promising. Also of interest is the listing of active researchers of Chinese classification systems and thesauri studies, along with and major library programs that offer classification and thesauri courses and books written on the subject (in Chinese). These lists could provide great resources for those looking for additional information in the field.

_________________________________________________________________________

Zhang, W. (2003). Classification for Chinese libraries (CCL): Histories, accomplishments, problems and its comparisons. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 41(1), 1-22.

Zhang’s look at the major classification system in China can be quite confusing, as he uses his own translation of CCL instead of CLC, like most scholars. He is very complementary of Western classification, focusing on “modern” vs. ancient systems. In his analysis, Zhang shows how ancient classification was designed to assist scholars and officials and its central theme of Confucianism proved to be ill-suited for contemporary needs. Because of its widespread use, the CCL has paved the way for easy standardization of language. Although Zhang is vague about the development of Western influence post-Opium War, he lays out an excellent historical account the changing political forces in China, and especially the communist influence on the CCL. Included is an excellent comparison of the CCL and the Library of Congress Classification (LCC), in which the author notes that both successes were created through collective work and had national support.

Advertisements

SEX TRADE AND THE GLOBAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE

Introduction

The sex trade and the Internet were made for one another; the sex industry created the very technologies that have made the Internet into the powerful system it is today, while the online environment has provided voyeurs and sex entrepreneurs the ability to connect in an anonymous environment.

When I began this research, I had hoped to find information on the ways in which the global information infrastructure (GII) is empowering women to be able to perform sex work from the safety of their rooms, but I found reports of pedophilia and sex trafficking to be much more abundant. The abuse and exploitation of women and children is not a new topic, but the GII has made it easier to transmit information quickly and anonymously, allowing for one of the largest markets to flourish: The global sex industry. Because information is easily accessible, demand for more graphic materials has begun to surface; the people who were once in the closet over their sexual desires now have the comfort and validation of an online community that can dictate what materials and sex acts are available. This “consumer” community creates a demand for “goods” (sex work performed by women and children), which drives the exploitation, abuse and often forced prostitution of  women and children who are often living in poor, third-world nations.

I wanted to find up-to-date information, as the Internet is in constant flux, but it has been difficult to find materials that were published in the last couple years. I believe this is due to the fact that pornography has become so normalized that there has been fewer academic writings on the subject of late. As such, some of the materials in this bibliography are up to eight years old, which can be out of date in the world of the Internet; therefore, each material listed here was selected not on its timeliness, but on its contribution to the discussion of the Global Information Infrastructure.

_________________________________________________________________________

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (1998). Misuse of the Internet for the Purpose of Sexual

Exploitation. Retrieved June 13, 2008 from http://action.web.ca/home/catw/ readingroom.shtml?x=16286&AA_EX_Session=b558d6987372a2709f174c8045ae2448

Authority of Author

The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) is a NGO that “works internationally to combat sexual exploitation in all its forms, especially prostitution and trafficking in women and children, in particular girls.” The organization works as consultants for the United Nations Economic and Social Council and organizes campaigns focused on creating lasting change.

Relevance

This document is statement to the United Nations Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery in Geneva, which makes recommendations for working against trafficking and sexual exploitation on the Internet. The group notes that “prostitution, sex tours, bride trafficking, pornography, live sex shows, and rape videos for sexual entertainment” are promoted and often carried out. Even though many men out themselves as guilty of sex crimes, there is no accountability on the Internet and men can narrate their exploits without repercussions.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

Sexual exploitation, including trafficking, sexual slavery and abuse, is promoted and carried out utilizing the Internet’s global reach, absence of borders and lack of accountability.

Coverage

The CATW takes a stance on the trafficking of women from a global perspective. This work was submitted in 1998, and although the issues are still relevant, the level of trafficking and sexual exploitation have increased as the technology has advanced.

Point of View Bias

CATW is a global feminist organization, and as such they are focused on the exploitation of women and children, not on any positive attributes that may come from the GII, such as the ability to communicate quickly and efficiently with other organizations to implement change. The viewpoints regarding human rights issues addressed here are accepted worldwide, and CATW is not just taking a western viewpoint.

_________________________________________________________________________

Dauser, T. & N. Schader (Writers). (2007, May 4). Internetspiele tummelplatz für kinderpornografie [television broadcast]. In Report mainz. Mainz, Germany: SWR. Google transcript translation retrieved June 17, 2008 from http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.swr.de%2Freport%2F-%2Fid%3D233454%2Fnid%3D233454%2Fdid%3D2060062%2F1h0wega%2Findex.html&langpair=de|

Authority of Author

Report Mainz is a German news source. Presenter Fritz Frey is a well-known commentator of reports on current affairs and global issues.

Relevance

Second-Life is the largest online virtual world and has gained worldwide popularity. This German report discusses the criminal investigations of child pornography in the virtual world.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

Pornographic communities are continuing to branch out using new technology and software that is developing. Second-Life, as a virtual simulation of the real world, is moving forward as deviants use the system to their advantage; although it is a virtual environment, explicit scenes can be created such as adult avatars having sex with child-like avatars as well as posted digital images, which could lead the way to “simulated” rape and sexual exploitation in virtual worlds. This demonstrates the ways in which software can be manipulated to share images and simulations of sex.

Coverage

Written and shown in Germany recently (2007), this news report was also distributed in English due to dedicated bloggers and translators as well as the global implications of the story.

Point of View Bias

As a television news source, Report Mainz, like any other news media, capitalizes on the dramatic to draw in an audience. Though they interview various professionals who are stakeholders in this story, they may have chosen to interview individuals who did not present a balanced viewpoint, but rather created more sensationalism.

_________________________________________________________________________

Egan, T. (2000, October 23). Wall Street meets pornography [Electronic version]. The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008 from http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/23/technology/23PORN.html?ex=1213761600&en=873d0689017beedb&ei=5070

Authority of Author

The New York Times is a trusted news source and the author, Timothy Egan, is a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and regular contributor to the paper.

Relevance

Some of the largest, most influential corporations in America are making huge revenues from the sale and distribution of pornography. Mainstream companies (many whom have ties to charitable and religious organizations) are now in the market of hardcore pornography, though they do not have to claim the stigma attached to the adult film industry.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

Pornography used to be seen as a taboo, but now it is a major international market. Corporations that have nothing to do with the sex industry are financially benefiting by using satellite technology to mass distribute pornography, while adult websites are traded like stocks.  The sex industry has grown exponentially due to Pay-per-view and the Internet’s ability to instantly connect consumers with the product.

Coverage

As corporate ownership is not static, this article is somewhat outdated; written in 2000, it discusses General Motor’s subsidiary DirecTV, which sells more adult films than Larry Flynt of the Hustler empire; as of 2008, GM no longer owns DirecTV. Because Egan focuses primarily on American corporations, he leaves out much of the discussion on corporations based in other countries such as Europe and Southeast Asia.

Point of View Bias

Egan does an excellent job of appearing neutral on the subject, interviewing people from many different stakeholder groups such as the sex industry, corporations and groups dedicated to eliminating adult films.

_________________________________________________________________________

Funnell, J. (2006, August 5). How porn conquered the world. [Television broadcast]. UK: Illuminations Media.

Authority of Author

Jim Funnell is a documentary filmmaker best known for his documentary Three Kings at War, about the grandchildren of Queen Victoria and their relations leading up to the first World War. Illuminations is a independent London-based documentary production company who creates films for the alternative British television station, Channel 4.

Relevance

With a global profit of around 45 billion dollars (2 billion for Internet porn alone), the porn industry has risen to gigantic proportions. Those who did not anticipate the effects of the Internet were lost in the rush towards pornography’s online presence. Because the web allows for virtual interaction, pornography has moved away from plot-driven Art House-style cinema and towards formulaic graphic and explicit sex. In Japan, pornography has even transcended these new “traditional” online formats, taking form in sexually explicit video games.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

The porn industry has been instrumental in creating technologies for the Internet, including developing banners and pop-up ads as well as orchestrating the use of credit cards on the Internet. The Internet is a democratic system in which anyone can publish material: If people have the ability to manipulate the technology, they can become entrepreneurs. In this sense, much of the material being made and distributed on the Internet is now coming from the performers’ perspectives (mostly women) rather than sleazy porn executives.

Coverage

This documentary takes a historical look at the rise of pornography in western society. Utilizing archival black and white porn and interviewing past and present architects of pornography, this film was originally shown on the UK’s Channel 4, which is known for showcasing filmmakers who work outside the corporate mainstream television system.

Point of View Bias

As a British filmmaker catering to a mostly English-speaking audience, Funnell does not interview people who work outside of North America and western Europe. This can be limiting, as people working in non-industrialized countries may have a dramatically different perspective about the rise and effects of pornography on the world’s poorer nations.

_________________________________________________________________________

Hughes, D.M. (2000). “Welcome to the rape camp”: Sexual exploitation and the internet in Cambodia. Journal of sexual aggression, 6 (1/2), 1-23.

Authority of Author

Dr. Donna Hughes is a professor and leading researcher from the University of Rhode Island. She has written dozens of articles and books about the trafficking of women and children, and is frequently consulted by NGOs and governmental organizations regarding the sexual exploitation of women and children.

Relevance

The digital age has naturalized the trafficking of women for purposes of sexual exploitation and allows worldwide sex markets to flourish.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

This article demonstrates how the Internet’s global market can provide not only live sex shows, but the ability to interact; through this medium, racist and misogynistic men are now able to “virtually” torture women by submitting their sexual and abusive desires then watch them play out live via the Internet.

Coverage

This article focuses primarily on Cambodian and Vietnamese women in Cambodia from 1998-2000. Though the sex work takes place in Cambodia, the men whose opinions were mined for this article lived worldwide.

Point of View Bias

As a women’s and children’s rights advocate, Hughes’ work focuses on the trafficking (or “indentured prostitution”) aspect of global sex work, not looking into women in industrialized countries who have found Internet sex work to be empowering.

_________________________________________________________________________

Jenkins, P. (2001). Beyond tolerance: Child pornography on the internet. New York: New York University Press.

Authority of Author

As a professor of Humanities at Pennsylvania State University, Philip Jenkins is a former professor of Criminal Justice who has written numerous books looking at history, religion and sociology of groups. Focusing primarily on global Christianity, Jenkins is not an expert on child abuse issues, the GII or pornography, though his focus on modern society, cults and religious movements can be connected to his research of the deviant child pornography community.

Relevance

Although child pornography is still viewed by the majority of adults as being representative of the world’s darkest horrors, the Internet has “caused this deviant subculture to become highly organized and go global” (inside dust jacket). Jenkins uses his analyses to understand society’s distorted view of child pornography and confront many of the existing deviancy theories, as well as arguing a case for creating Internet regulations.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

Jenkins sheds light on the scale of child pornography on the Internet, showing that there is not a huge and powerful child pornography industry, but instead a smaller community that is able to spread their information and materials worldwide via the Internet. After authorities drove child pornographers away from AOL, child pornography traffickers were forced to create their own networks and domains to share information; because they are now off the mainstream, these systems are much more difficult to monitor. The global sex tour industry has allowed men to take pictures of their conquests and upload the photographs, increasing the amount of materials distributed.

Coverage

Although Jenkins focuses on the countries in which the distribution of child pornography is most proficient, especially Scandinavia, Germany and the United States, he shows that the child pornography community is a global one; most boards are based in Japan, while a majority of the users are from the United States and Europe (English and German are the most-spoken languages on these boards, though even sites and discussions in non-European languages can be found). He does not discuss the exploited children at length, rather focusing on the voyeurs and perpetrators; this is a much welcome stray from the conventional mode of studying the victims rather than the perpetrators.

Point of View Bias

As an advocate for Internet regulations, Jenkins lays out in his introduction that he hopes his work will help change the way we police the Internet. Jenkins does an excellent job of showing the morality of people involved in child pornography communities; even though they are faceless deviants, Jenkins shows how people can justify their obviously taboo behaviors. Although he calls for policing that would ultimately lock up these purveyors of child pornography, he does not seem to display moral superiority or antagonistic views of the perpetrators.

_________________________________________________________________________

Kirk, M. (Producer and Director). (2002, February 7). Frontline: American porn [Television broadcast]. Retrieved June 17, 2008 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/porn/view/

Authority of Author

Frontline is a nationally syndicated show documenting news and current affairs on the Public Broadcasting Station. After airing, two people featured in this news story were formally charged by the U.S. Attorney’s Office on charges of obscenity.

Relevance

This news report documents the American pornography industry’s rise to worldwide Internet domination in recent years. The industry was in decline under the first Bush Administration, but the onslaught of digital technologies combined with laizze-faire policies by the Clinton Administration allowed the industry to rise to undocumented success, reaching not just a national audience, but an international one as well. Porn companies have now broken through to the mainstream and have partnered with some of the biggest corporations in the country. Digital technologies have allowed women such as Danni Ashe (of the website Danni’s Hard Drive) to empower themselves by creating their own businesses from the safety of their own homes or studios.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

In the earlier stages of the Internet, Yahoo acted as a catalog and repository for online pornography, which helped to legitimize it. Hotels and corporations distributing porn via satellite television also aided in legitimizing digital sex, and there are now over 200,000 commercial pornography sites. Digital technologies have made sex work much safer for women who have the knowledge and technology to create their own online sex shows; virtual lap dances can be produced in someone’s bedroom and streamed worldwide, allowing women to make a lot of money.

Coverage

This news report focuses on creators and distributors of porn in the United States. Published in 2002, some of the statistics are most likely outdated.

Point of View Bias

For this film, Frontline interviewed both industry insiders and those who prosecuted them. The people interviewed who work in the industry varied from people like Danni Ashe, the self-described “geek with big breasts”, was portrayed as an intelligent entrepreneur to Robert Zikari and Janet Romano who were reminiscent of the sleazy days of pornography before the Internet (the two were later indicted on obscenity charges). Though the individuals were presented in different lights (or shades of morality), Frontline’s overall voice was condemning of the industry.

_________________________________________________________________________

Nair, S. (n.d.) Child sex tourism. Retrieved June 13, 2008 from U.S. Department of Justice Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section Web site: http://www.justice.gov/criminal/ceos/sextour.html

Authority of Author

The CEOS is a branch of the Department of Justice which is “focused on waging an aggressive battle to protect children from individuals who use computers or the United States mails to sexually abuse and exploit them.” CEOS is an international leader in this field, contributing to policy-building and trainings outside of the U.S.

Relevance

Poverty has created a market where the sexual abuse of children is a cheap commodity. This CEOS report addresses the phenomenon of sex tourism and sex trafficking, which often results in the sexual slavery of women and children, and succinctly discusses the main stakeholders in the global sex trade.

Contribution to our Understanding of the GII

This document showcases the Internet’s use as a marketing tool which promotes the abuse of children through child sex tourism. In the global market, the Internet allows people to publish testimonials detailing their sexual exploits in sectors where governments of poverty-stricken countries turn a blind eye to the illegality of one of the countries’ major economic resources.

Coverage

As a governmental web site, the information is updated on a regular basis and focuses on the global impact.

Point of View/Bias

Because the CEOS is an organization of the United States government, they are primarily focused on the well-being of American children; they work on a global scale, though, due to the lack of borders in child pornography and trafficking.

_________________________________________________________________________

Rimer, J. (2007, September 24-27). Literature review: Responding to child & youth victims of sexual exploitation on the internet. Paper presented at the Responding to Child and Youth Victims of Sexual Exploitation on the Internet Training Seminar in Ontario, Canada. Retrieved June 25, 2008 from http://www.boostforkids.org/pdf/RCE-Literature-Review.pdf

Authority of Author

Rimer is a research assistant with Boost Child Abuse Prevention & Intervention, an organization working to eradicate child abuse. Although this is his first report, it is quite substantial, using up-to-date references and resources, including 19 pages of works cited and works of influence on the author’s research.

Relevance

This 127-page document covers nearly every aspect of the exchange of information regarding the sexual exploitation of children and teens over the Internet. As the amount of materials being distributed has increased, so has the demand for more graphic materials. Youths are being exploited through pornography, luring and sexual trafficking, but there is also a burgeoning trend of children creating their own live sex shows (via webcam) for profit.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

According to Rimer, “The internet has contributed significantly to increased accessibility, production, and trade of child pornography” (p. 12). Prior to the Internet, finding child pornography was a risky endeavor; the Internet has speed up the exchange of this type of illegal information due to its relative anonymity, as well as the fact that it takes such a short amount of time to send materials. Technologies are being used to safely transfer information, such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email, websites that organize sex tours and promote pimps, brothels and child pornography, p2p systems, instant messaging (IM), cell phones (for both taking and sending photos), encryption, IP Telephony (such as webcams) and steganography. While technologies are speeding up the information transfer process, they are also being utilized to catch predators. The UK-centered “Childbase System” searches old and new photographs to instantly identify kids and predators.

Coverage

Rimer’s in-depth study is current and global in scale, utilizing influential scholars on the subject, including Donna Hughes (whose work can also be found in this bibliography).

Point of View Bias

As a work designed to complement a Boost Child Abuse Prevention & Intervention training seminar, Rimer’s literature review definitely comes with an agenda: To inform people and to end the sexual exploitation of children. Rimer uses a plethora of varying resources, mostly from criminal justice, psychology and social work journals, though he also uses general news sources such as The New York Times and The Toronto Star.

_________________________________________________________________________

Sassen, S. (2002). Global cities and survival circuits. In N. Ehrenreich and A.R. Hochschild (Eds.), Global Woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy (pp. 254-274). New York:    Metropolitan Books.

Authority of Author

Saskia Sassen is a well-known sociologist and economist who writes on human migration and globalization. She is a professor of sociology at Columbia University and a guest sociology professor at the London School of Economics. She has authored books such as “Globalization and Its Discontents” and “The Global City”.

Relevance

This article discusses the ways in which globalization works to benefit the transfer of global capital and information, while those arenas that are bound to a physical location suffer. In her analysis, Sassen shows how women’s migration are intricately linked to globalization and the global sex trade.

Contribution to Our Understanding of the GII

The IMF and the World Bank often recommend tourism to poor countries as a strategy for development and as way to produce revenue; sex work is seen as a part of the entertainment industry, so structural adjustment policies are helping to drive the global sex industry. The transnationalism of tourism and the sex industry are bolstering one another, expanding the sex market to global proportions. Sassen makes some really excellent connections between globalization and women’s rights, namely that the essence of globalization privileges information over the workers who actually create the information.

Coverage

This work is global in scope and provides a framework for discussing globalization’s effects on women; even though the piece was written in 2002 and is over six years old, the theories Sassen lays down can still be applicable to today’s global information infrastructure.

Point of View Bias

As a sociologist and economist, Sassen has a great level of expertise in this area. This piece seems to convey opposition to IMF policies, but Sassen’s expertise gives her the clout to speak with authority.

LGBTQ REFERENCE MATERIALS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Background:

The first gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered community center has recently opened in the city. It has been successful, and has partnered with the local historical archive to bring about awareness to GLBT histories.
The medium-sized public library in which I work has a few GLBT reference books, mostly about law, self-help and family issues, but is lacking adequate coverage of GLBT history. The queer community here has not been very vocal in the past, but with the opening of the community center they have gained visibility in the general community. The library would like to be able to provide services that the community center is lacking, namely historical and academic reference. I have been given the task of building a GLBT reference collection to meet this need. We expect that the collection will be utilized by those looking for general GLBT history as well as patrons looking for assistance in scholarly pursuits.

Bibliography:

Who’s who in gay and lesbian history: from antiquity to World War II, ed. Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon. Routledge, 2001. 502p ISBN 0-415-15982-2, $29.95.

Who’s who in contemporary gay and lesbian history: from World War II to the present day, ed. Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon. Routledge, 2001. 460p ISBN:0-415-22974-X, $29.95.

These two titles are companion books, spanning from ancient times to modern day. The well-written, detailed articles are easy to read, allowing accessibility to students as well as academics, while the use of cross-referencing allows for more in depth searches. Reference lists and signed entries by international experts in varying fields provide additional authority. Although the two bio-bibliographies are international in scope, the editors have focused primarily on individuals from westernized countries and countries that have been dramatically colonized by western countries. Both queer and straight individuals are indexed, as the scope is meant to encompass people who have affected and created gay and lesbian history. As women have been neglected in historical accounts (thus making it more difficult to find accurate information about women’s historical contributions prior to World War II), the focus is decidedly male-centered. Within each article, important events and contributions are listed, along with a description of the social and historical background.

One of the major pitfalls of these works (and of any Who’s Who title) is the complete absence of an index, appendix, or any search tools. Those who come to these volumes with a name in hand will find it easy to use, as the alphabetical entries are detailed and link to other entries or external works for further research, but one would be hard-pressed to find information about an organization or event if no major names are known. There has been significant action in gay and lesbian activism in the last five years, which is notably absent from these 2001 works, but the positive contributions outweigh the darker aspects.
Reader’s guide to lesbian and gay studies, ed. Timothy F. Murphy. Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. 720p ISBN:1-57958-142-0, $125.00

This work acts as a reference to the existing canon of academic literature in gay and lesbian studies by discussing only secondary literature, not the original events. As an in-depth bibliography, books and academic articles are analyzed so that the advanced researcher can easily access works applicable to a certain study. The collection is comprised of works that have been cataloged in databases of existing academic literature, which means if there is not enough research on a topic (such as lesbians and rape, for example), it has been excluded from this guide. The articles are authored by scholars and seem to be well written but not inaccessible. Each topic is given 1-5 pages of discussion, depending on the amount of research and printed works devoted to the topic.

Some notable features are the addition of a thematic list (similar to a table of contents) in the introduction. As the articles are alphabetized by topic, finding a topic without knowing the specific keywords could prove troublesome. Each article heading is organized in the thematic index by theme or subject, which makes finding the specific subject heading keywords for an article much easier. Also of worthy mention is the booklist index (in addition to the general index), which lists all of the works cited in the text. This guide would be helpful for students and scholars researching special subjects.
Encyclopedia of homosexuality, ed. Wayne R. Dynes. Garland,1990. 2v, 1,484p ISBN:8240-6544-1, $150

This infamous two-volume encyclopedia was initially extremely well-received by the academic community, being hailed as an “outstanding title” by CHOICE Reviews. With a classic look and feel, Dynes was able to create the opus of all gay and lesbian encyclopedias. Elaborate thematic, topical and biographical articles are international in scope. The “no living persons” policy limits biographical entries, though living people are mentioned in other articles. The 65-page index is a marvel, indexing not just the main topics and biographies, but also those individuals who are just briefly mentioned in articles.

Many articles regarding women’s issues are lacking updated and pivotal references as well as proper author signatures and biographies, and Dynes validity has been questioned. Dynes has even been accused of contriving one of the female contributors who penned many of the articles on lesbian issues. Although there are mishaps and omissions in lesbian works, the overall contributions this volume adds to the existing body of gay and lesbian reference is undisputable. Extremely detailed and informative, this work can be utilized by the general public and academics alike.
Completely queer: the gay and lesbian encyclopedia, by Steve Hogan and Lee Hudson. H. Holt, 1998. 704p ISBN:0-8050-3629-6, $50

Hogan and Hudson have put together a glossy, more aesthetically pleasing version of Dynes’ Encyclopedia of Homosexuality rife with over 250 photos and illustrations. Though not as detailed and academic in nature as Dynes’ opus, Completely Queer details the “history, people, places and ideas important to lesbian and gay communities worldwide.” Though the work focuses on queer culture in the United States and has a western-bias, detailed country profiles provide excellent analyses of international issues. Hogan and Hudson wrote all of the entries, which attempt to balance gay and lesbian interest.

The introduction provides specific instructions on how to use the encyclopedia, and finding entries and cross-referencing is a quick and easy process. An interesting feature of this work is the 73-page chronology in the appendix, which lists a concise history of queer events, beginning with 12,000 B.C.
Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures, ed. George Haggerty and Bonnie Zimmerman
Garland, 2000. 986p ISBN:0-8153-1880-4, $140.00

In attempt to right the underrepresented and biased offerings of lesbian histories in Dynes’ Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, Haggerty and Zimmerman gave women and men each their own book in this two-volume set. In contrast to Dynes’ epic work, The Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures identifies all of the authors, with legitimate signatures on each entry. Concise and clear, the language is easy to understand and could be utilized by the general public and scholars alike, although it does not go into much depth beyond stating the facts. Subject guides and a good index, along with brief bibliographies and cross-references facilitate painless searching. The scope is global and pan-historical, though the editors concede that it is by no means comprehensive. With a very large majority of the authors hailing from the United States or other western nations, it would be impossible to be totally competent in an international scope.

Although the two volumes were meant to allow full and even coverage of gay and lesbian issues, the splitting of the work into two separate volumes is a bit problematic. Gay and lesbian histories overlap because they are not entirely distinct experiences. Articles only articulate the histories of those whose gender is encompassed in that particular volume. To get the full story you must check both volumes, which is quite a pain, as the volumes are not linked by cross-references or indexes. There are many inconsistencies between the two volumes, as if the editors collaborated on content but not on organization. There also seems to be no criteria for selections; gentrification and social work are included, but entries on pornography and The Village People are oddly missing. Even with these missteps, Haggerty and Zimmerman have put together an excellent reference source that has been recommended by Choice Reviews, the Library Journal and Booklist. Though not as easy to use as The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, it is more balanced and comprehensive of both gay and lesbian issues.
St. James Press gay & lesbian almanac, ed. Neil Schlager.  St. James Press, 1998.  680p ISBN:1-55862-358-2, $100.00.

The St. James Press Gay & Lesbian Almanac is a one of a kind. While most almanacs work as a quick reference to the fun non-essentials, Schlager’s work is of a more scholarly nature. This collection provides an in-depth analysis of specific aspects of queer history, community, and gay and lesbian culture. Focusing on the United States, the editors chose not to examine an international viewpoint of gay and lesbian lifestyles, but did provide a voice for both local and regional views.

The bibliography in each chapter is thorough, providing links to not only books, but to articles and Internet web sites as well. An interesting and helpful addition is the “Significant Documents” section, which spans the gamut of queer texts, from essays to legal documents. An extensive index and general bibliography allow for the pinpointing of specific topics in each chapter in addition to excellent cross-referencing. The ability of this text to provide both quick reference points as well as assistance in in-depth researching makes the St. James Press Gay & Lesbian Almanac an indispensable tool.

FROM DOCUMENTARIES TO FANVIDS: PARTICIPATORY CULTURE, VIDEO REMIX AND COPYRIGHT – AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, N. (2009, Jan 15). What fair use? Three strikes and you’re out… of YouTube [online]. Ars Technica. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from http://arstechnica.com/ tech-policy/news/2009/01/what-fair-use-three-strikes-and-youre-out-of-youtube.ars

This short article from Ars Technica, a respected tech-news blog, discusses the questionable policy of YouTube in complying with the DMCA notice-takedown system in regards to fair use and the use of materials for educational or critiquing purposes. Anderson also takes on YouTube’s “three strikes your out” policy, in which user accounts are disabled if they receive three or more takedown notices. Though the article only interviews users who have been hurt by this policy, not copyright holders who ordered the initial takedown notice, this work is prevalent to those interested in current remix copyright issues.

_________________________________________________________________________

Aufderheide, P. & Jaszi, P. (2008). Recut, reframe, recycle: Quoting copyrighted material in user-generated video. Center for Social Media. Retrieved March 20th, fromhttp://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/files/pdf/CSM_Recut_Reframe_Recycle_report.pdf

Auferheide and Jaszi, professors at the American University’s School of Communication Center for Social Media, detail in this multimedia report how many video remixes are eligible for fair use consideration due to the nature of the work being a parody, commentary, trigger for discussion, or other uses applicable to fair use. In addition, the authors recommend the creation of a committee comprised of remixers, scholars and lawyers to develop a set of best-practices. This work would be helpful to those looking to further understand the application of fair use to video remixes and those interested in creating change to current copyright law.

_________________________________________________________________________

Charmax (2009). Unnatural selection [Video]. Retrieved March 29, 2009 fromhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vxQl7977BE

This video, entitled Natural Selection, is an excellent example of a multi-faceted remix video and shows how fanvids can be transformative. The video itself is a mashup of clips from Battlestar Galactica and Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles, while the audio is a dance remix of The Pixies’ “Monkey Gone to Heaven”. Charmax (the creator and uploader of the remix) has pulled scenes and music together to exhibit a theme that is prevalent to both shows: The end of the world.

_________________________________________________________________________

Coombe, R.J. (1998). The cultural life of intellectual properties: Authorship, appropriation, and the law. Duke University Press: Durham.

Rosemary Coombe discusses how intellectual property law can be used to study the relationship between culture and law. Delving into the culture and law of celebrity, Coombe also looks at how marginalized groups often create alternative (and subjective) interpretations of materials, including women’s reimagining of the Star Trek world. Coombes work is rife with interesting examples and is a seminal work on the intersection between culture of authorship and law.

_________________________________________________________________________

Copyright Website (n.d.). Copyright casebook: David Bowie, Queen and Vanilla Ice. Retrieved March 28, 2009 from http://www.benedict.com/audio/Vanilla/Vanilla.aspx

The Copyright Website is a simple site that documents copyright cases regarding the sampling of music. Though not an academic work, the site functions to provide quick and easy facts about major music sampling controversies.

_________________________________________________________________________

Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans & Participatory Culture. Routledge: New York.

As an academic who has been following the creation of fanvids for over 15 years, Jenkins is one of the leading experts on video remix culture. Though written in 1992, this book is especially helpful in looking at the history of video remix and the underground status of fanvid creators. Jenkins conducts extensive interviews with some of the leading video remixers, all of whom chose to remain anonymous due to the possible illegality of their works. An excellent look into the culture from an insider’s point of view, Jenkins work could be seen as supporting a case for fair use, especially as the people interviewed see their work as creative and adding value to the original work.

_________________________________________________________________________

Jhally, S. (2008). Sut Jhally on MTV & fair use [Video]. Retrieved March 28, 2009 fromhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0iTQ5IA7Uqw

As the founder of the Media Education Foundation, Sut Jhally is a leading academic on video remix and fair use. In this interview, Jhally discusses his struggles with MTV over the creation of documentary-style video remixes for academic purposes, the impetus for creating the MEF, and the importance of fair use and educational remix videos.

_________________________________________________________________________

Kravets, D. (2008, July 18). Universal says DMCA takedown notices can ignore ‘fair use’. Wired.com. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from http://www.wired.com/ threatlevel/2008/07/universal-says

This short news coverage regarding the questionable removal of a YouTube video using the DMCA takedown notice system illustrates the ways in which the DMCA is being used to take down materials that are obvious cases of fair use. Although Universal Music (the copyright owners in this case) admitted that the material was indeed an instance of fair use, Universal maintained that fair use should not be a consideration in takedown notices and that even copyright owners who file takedown notices in clear cases of fair use should not be liable for monetary damages.

_________________________________________________________________________

Kreisinger, E. (2009, March 21). Political Remix Video. Retrieved March 29th, 2009 fromhttp://www.politicalremixvideo.com/2009/03/21/detachable-penis/

Political Remix Video is a site dedicated to “transforming mass media” by advocating for the creation of transformative remix videos. As one half of the creative team behind PRV, Kreisinger is a well-known video artist and writer who has direct experience participating in remix culture and focuses on “deconstructing identities of race and gender through remixing”. This particular article, though short, is important in that it discusses how our own knowledge and background can affect how we view videos as being critical and/or political. The intent of the creator is often not known, and though there are cultural themes that may seem explicitly political, fanvids are not necessarily critical or political in nature.

_________________________________________________________________________

Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: Making art and commerce thrive in a hybrid economy. Penguin Press: New York.

As the celebrity copyright critic of this generation, Lawrence Lessig has established himself as an important scholar who also speaks to the masses. The latest book from Lessig focuses on defining and exploring remix culture and what this shift in cultural norms means for copyright law. In looking towards the future, Lessig makes proposals for copyright reform that will work with remix culture rather than against it.

_________________________________________________________________________

Manovich, L. (2007). What comes after remix? Retrieved from http://remixtheory.net/ ?p=169

In this piece, Manovich takes a very basic look at the history and theory of remix in order to gain better understanding of its cultural importance. From art, music, literature, video, software (better known as mash-ups), Manovich documents how remix has transitioned from being about primarily about music to encompassing other areas of innovation; even though remix is not just a passing fad but a facet of mainstream culture, copyright law has not been revised to adapt to this cultural revolution. This is a good article for those new to thinking about remix as a cultural phenomenon in gaining a basic understanding and provide fodder to begin thinking about the future of remix.

_________________________________________________________________________

McLeod, K. (2004). How copyright law changed hip hop [Electronic version]. Stay Free Magazine, 20. Retrieved March 28, 2009 from http://www.stayfreemagazine.org/archives/20/public_enemy.html

As an associate professor at the University of Iowa, McLeod is a prominent writer and documentary filmmaker whose work focuses on pop music and intellectual property law. In this interview with Chuck D and Hank Shocklee, pioneers of digital sampling, the three discuss the history of sampling in hip-hop. Two separate interviews compiled into one narrative, this piece is an excellent look through the eyes of industry insiders at how copyright law has ultimately changed hip-hop music.

_________________________________________________________________________

Porter, J.E. & Devoss D.N. (2006). Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Remixing as a Means for Economic Development. Wide Research Center 2006 Conference.

In looking at remix from a literary point of view, Porter and Devoss note that the pay-per-use structure currently in place is detrimental to creativity (and thus the economy), and that all authors and innovators borrow from others. They advocate for academics to turn their focus away from copyright law and look towards a focus on the ethics of fair use.

_________________________________________________________________________

Radosh, D. (2004, June 22). Harry Potter: The digital remix. Salon.com. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from http://dir.salon.com/story/ent/feature/2004/06/22/harry/index1.html

In looking at a case study of how remixing can be transformative, Radosh takes a look at the work of Brad Neely, a well-known independent comic book artist and cartoonist. In 2004, Neely’s Wizard People, Dear Reader became a cult hit with adult fans of Harry Potter. This article details the creation of Wizard People, as well as the copyright issues and subsequent end of public performances due to the infringing nature of the work.

_________________________________________________________________________

Sanchez, J (2009, Feb. 12). Animal rights vs. rodeo DMCA takedown fight settled. Ars Technica. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2009/02/shark-vs-cowboy-dmca-fight-settled.ars

In this piece from Ars Technica, Sanchez looks into the most recent communications regarding the YouTube/DMCA takedown policy. In attempt to censor SHARK, an animal rights group who had been using videos to demonstrate the cruelty of rodeos, the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) filed unwarranted complaints for DMCA takedown notices of materials they did not own the rights to. Though initially successful, SHARK struck back with a lawsuit, which ended in a settlement. As part of the settlement, the PRCA agreed to discuss copyright matters with the group directly rather than just filing a complaint. This case is important, as it demonstrates a new way for copyright holders to deal with potential copyright infringement.

_________________________________________________________________________

Schwabach, A. (2009). The Harry Potter Lexicon and the world of fandom: Fan fiction, outsider works, and copyright. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 70(3) (forthcoming in 2009). SSRN eLibrary. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1274293.

Schwabach’s work, which focuses on the copyright issues surrounding fanfiction, is remarkable in not only its description of fan culture, or fandom, but also in its analysis of key cases that demonstrate how copyright law is currently working in fanfiction. Fanfiction and fanvids are similar types of user-generated content that utilize different formats; many of the legal analyses Schwabach’s uses for fanfiction can also be applied to remix video. Current and well-researched, this work is very important in thinking about the legality of fan-created content, including the use of multimedia in fan works.

_________________________________________________________________________

Tushnet, R. (1997). Legal fictions: Copyright, fan fiction, and a new common law. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Journal, 17(3), 651-686.

As the founder of the Organization for Transformative Works, Tushnet, who is both a law professor at Georgetown University and a writer of fan fiction, is a well-known advocate for carving out a legal space for fan works. In this seminal work, Tushnet describes the murky legal status of fan works, utilizing extensive in-depth footnotes and case studies. Outlining the factors for fair use, Tushnet argues for the protection of non-commercial works and a reexamination of copyright law to more adequately reflect copyright norms. Tushnet’s blog is also an excellent resource on the topic, and this work is a must-read for all individuals interested in the legality of fan works in relation to copyright law.

_________________________________________________________________________

Vaidhyanathan, S. (2001). Copyrights and copywrongs: The rise of intellectual property and how it threatens creativity. New York University Press: New York.

As one of the leading scholars on intellectual property, Vaidhyanathan is more than qualified to tackle this complex topic. Focusing on consumer culture, Vaidhyanathan’s work utilizes cases studies to show how copyright is negatively affecting creativity in the arts. Chapter four, which is devoted to music, is especially helpful in seeing the history of remix and sampling in not just hip-hop music, but other genres such as rock and pop as well.

_________________________________________________________________________

Vineyard, J. (2007). Britney Spears launches fan-made-video contest – Winning clip to air on ‘TRL’. MTV.com. Retrieved March 28, 2009 fromhttp://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1575400/20071129/spears_britney.jhtml

By opening their archive of materials, MTV’s promotional contest was beneficial to not only end-users, but the corporation and Britney Spears as well. In promoting the use of copyrighted material by fans, MTV has validated remix as a cultural art-form that brings users outside of their typical roles as consumers.

_________________________________________________________________________

Von Lohmann, F (2009, Feb. 3).YouTube’s January fair use massacre. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/01/youtubes-january-fair-use-massacre

In detailing the new system that YouTube has employed to curb copyright infringement, this article is not only a news piece, but a call to arms. YouTube’s Content ID system is an automated way for copyright owners to find potential copyright infringing videos, but it highly flawed. In searching for content, it does not factor in fair use, thus removing videos that are not necessarily infringing. In addition, Von Lohmann calls for YouTube to change their system and offers assistance to people who have been unfairly targeted by copyright owners employing Content ID.

Choose Your Own Research Adventure

DESCRIPTION:

Creating online activities that are actually engaging can be a challenge — students with short attention spans often skim (or completely skip over) the content that librarian instructors painstakingly spend hours building. For those who have adopted the flipped classroom model, getting students to actively engage in the homework is a key component of the process, but can be difficult in real practice. In this presentation, you’ll learn the benefit of creating your own online Choose Your Own Adventure using Google Forms or Inklewriter. With as many different paths or endings as you can write, these interactive lessons can be embedded into course management systems or subject guides to support online learners, and can also be used for learning assessment.

Choose your presentation here: http://writer.inklestudios.com/stories/8c3v

Online NW Lightning Talk: Vimeo

DESCRIPTION:

A short presentation on the benefits of hosting videos on Vimeo and creating widgets for your website.

 

TALKING NOTES:

At OCOM, I’ve been working on the new library website and trying to think of ways to bolster our online services and connect with those students who don’t ever step foot in the library. We decided to try out video streaming, and we tested a lot of different formats, including hosting the videos ourselves and looking at different streaming sites. There are a slew of video streaming sites out there that will host your videos (and I think I tried out all of them) but we ultimately chose Vimeo for a few reasons:

  1. You don’t have to use your own server space to host the vids, which is awesome because that means your library site won’t be bogged down by using a lot of bandwidth for streaming. Instead, you can just redirect traffic to your Vimeo account.
  2. It allows the use of HD videos so the quality is going to be really nice and clear. If your video is higher quality and doesn’t take a lot of time to buffer, students might just seek out the DVD if streaming isn’t cutting it.
  3. And it is free (which is always nice), but if you do fork over the dough for a Pro account, you can actually control who is able to view the videos, which gives you a ton of control over the videos you are uploading.

Vimeo allows you to display your items a few different ways. The prettiest way is by creating a channel. You can select which videos show up in the channel, and the way in which they are presented. I prefer a YouTube-kind of format, but you can also create a gallery or blog-type setup as well. I’ve created a single channel that encompasses pretty much all our videos, but we also have different channels for specific categories.

Channels are slick and can also be used to promote your institution, but if you want to have greater control over who has access to your videos, albums are the way to go. The cool thing about creating albums is that if you have a Pro account, you can organize your videos into collections and categories that can be password protected. What this means is that if you don’t want to make some videos available for public viewing, (such as if the video author only wanted students to have access to the video), you can lock them so they are only accessible by those with the correct password. We are currently using this for work-study video tutorials – the world really doesn’t need to know about the inner workings of our checkout system.

Vimeo makes it really easy to create custom widgets for your videos so you can display them on your website. You can make a widget that displays screencaps for the videos in a specific channel or album, or even just show your latest videos. I experimented a lot with the Vimeo widgets, but I just couldn’t get it to look the way I wanted to. I didn’t want them to link to specific videos, but to the entire channel. So rather than using the Vimeo-endorsed widgets, I used HTML to custom-make thumbnails that would link directly to specific channels so people can view videos by category, but also a general channel that would house all of our videos. This helped to bring some organization to the video collection and redirects traffic to our Vimeo account so our website doesn’t get bogged down with streaming.

Some institutions will block streaming sites like YouTube, so its important to know those limitations beforehand. TeacherTube was not my first choice, but if YouTube is blocked, then you might need to broaden your search.

 

“Alternative” Research Education in a Post-R25 World: Assessing Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM) Student Attitudes Toward Research and the Scientific Method (MLA 2012)

DESCRIPTION:

How do alternative medicine students feel about “research” and the scientific method? In the post-R25 age of research education, have the levels of distrust towards the western research paradigm in its ability to adequately measure alternative medicine results been quelled, or do alternative medicine students view research as a nonessential part of their education? This follow up to a 2006 study seeks to tackle some of these questions by investigating the levels of research interest by acupuncture and oriental medicine (AOM) students, examining factors such as length of time in the program and the existence of an institutional culture of research.

VIEW SLIDES

Copyright for Activists and Artists Links

This is supplemental materials from”What is Fair, Free, and Available, and How to Make Sure it Lasts”, a workshop I led with Radical Reference at the Anarchist Bookfair on June 6th, 2009 in Portland, OR. The Fair Use Analysis handout was copied from Carrie Russell’s Complete Copyright: An Everyday Guide for Librarians. If you would like to check out this book, Multnomah County Library carries it.

The following are examples that show how copyright is being used to make profits and oppress the public:

Links:

Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/

Flickr Images w/ CC Licenses: http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/

Public Domain Art, Books, Images and Links: http://www.princetonol.com/groups/iad/links/clipart.html

Public Domain Works DB: http://www.publicdomainworks.net/

Public Domain Music: http://www.pdinfo.com/index.php

Public Domain Images: http://www.public-domain-image.com/

Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page

Librivox: http://librivox.org/

The Internet Archive: http://www.archive.org/

The Electronic Freedom Foundation: http://www.eff.org/

Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division: http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/mopic

Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress: http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/gmpage.html

Copyright Term and the Public Domain: http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/public_domain/

Copyright for Activists and Artists

For supplemental materials including links to free public domain and creative commons materials, click here.

Copyright law is totally complex and confusing and hypocritical. Sometimes it works to protect artists and actually does promote the creation of new materials, while other times it just protects corporate financial interests and restricts innovation. No matter what aspect of activism you are working in, from creating ‘zines or t-shirts or making fliers for a benefit show, you’re gonna be dealing with copyright issues. I don’t know how many posters I’ve made using found art. Working in a subculture, we are a lot less likely to be caught for infringement, but it doesn’t mean it won’t happen.

Warner Bros., for example, is really protective of the Harry Potter franchise. There was a big to do some years back when they started sending out cease and desist letters to people running Harry Potter fansites. We are talking about kids, like teens and tweens. There was one girl who was 16 at the time, and she totally fought it by organizing a worldwide boycott of all things Harry Potter (except the books, b/c they didn’t have anything against JK Rowling). And when they saw a loss in profits, WB backed down. I wanted to open with this story because it shows how corporate copyright holders use copyright law to bully the public and stifle creativity, but also how people can instigate changes through community organizing.

So the purpose of my part of this presentation is to inform you all on first of all, what is copyright, how to avoid infringement, and why its important to advocate for a bigger and better public domain.

1. What is copyright?
The purpose of copyright is meant to promote the arts and sciences while still providing some sort of incentive for creators to keep on creating new works. Statute of Anne (1710) in Britain helped authors, as publishers were reprinting works to the detriment of authors. This gave authors rights for 14 years. Originally just for printed works, but now copyright is involved in almost every aspect of commercial life.

Requirements for protection:

An original work in fixed medium. You don’t need to file for copyright; it is automatic once you create something in a tangible form. So an idea is NOT copyrightable, but a drawing or poem written on a napkin IS.

Exclusive Rights – There are a few rights that copyright owners receive automatically:

Produce copies

Import/Export the work

Creating Derivative Works

Performance right (the right to perform or display the work)

Sell or assign rights to another

Broadcasting rights (the right to transmit the work by radio or video)

2. How to avoid infringement

If you are borrowing materials in your work, you have a few options. The first is Fair Use. Basically, Fair Use allows for the use of copyrighted material for scholarly and educational purposes. Copyright law is supposed to NOT stifle creativity, so this is where Fair Use comes into play. Fair Use can cover teachers showing videos to their classrooms, to people remixing videos for satirical purposes or to provide social commentary.

If you are straight up borrowing a copyrighted work, you can’t just copy and paste. You have to ADD VALUE to it, making it a new work. (See Fair Use analysis handout)

Public Domain: PD materials are those that are completely owned by the public. This normally happens when a copyright expires, but sometimes creators want put their work in the public domain because they believe in communal goods, or maybe they just don’t care about attribution or making money off their work. In the past, the public domain has gotten a bad rap as being a kind of graveyard for old, unwanted books, but organizations like the Librivox, Guttenberg and the Creative Commons have kind of revitalized.

Creative Commons licensing: As activists, it is important to make our work accessible and available to the public not only to use, but to utilize to create new works. By making our work available for others to use, we create a community of artists all working together to make rad material.

The creative commons licensing is a way to do this and still maintain some rights over your material. While materials in the public domain are public property, a creative commons license allows you to still maintain some rights, but be more flexible about the copyright. One of the most common types of cc licenses is that of attribution: The material can be used for anything, but the original creator must be given credit for the use of their work. You can also do things like allow the material to be used for any purpose EXCEPT commercial ventures. If people were planning on making money in the use of your material, they would need to contact you and get your permission (or pay royalties).

Royalty-free images:

If you want to use found images in your works, there are a ton of places to find royalty-free images. You can also search online in public domain or creative commons image databases. For example, when you search Flickr, you can actually limit your search to only pics that have creative commons licenses, so you can find images that you can use. There are databases for tons of other art forms, including text, music, and motion pictures.

To recap, we’ve got

1.) Fair Use, where you are straight up just using copyrighted material, but you are using it for “educational” purposes;

2.) Use material that is freely available through Creative Commons licenses or are in the Public Domain;

3.) You can get permission to use the work; or

4.) You can just use copyrighted material and hope the copyright owners don’t find out or don’t care, or its possible that you might want to fight harsh copyright laws by blatantly breaking them. Either way, even in subculture, corporate copyright holders can be harsh.

3. Collective Ownership

When you are creating new works of art, you really have a lot of options: You can maintain creative control of your work by using copyright law to its fullest; you can attach a creative commons license so you retain some control over your work, but still encourage people to use and build off of your work; or you can donate it to the public domain, forgoing any rights, but nobly making your work free and accessible to all.

Borrowing from others is not new. How many times has Romeo and Juliet been remade? Does that mean that any new version could not possibly bring its own unique spin to a story that is hundreds of years old?

Something that corporate copyright owners often fail to see is that when you allow people to borrow materials, it is like free advertising for the original. As a musician, I would love it if some kids made a remix video and used my music in it. Maybe people would be too busy looking at the video to notice the music, but maybe some people might be like, who is this, I want to look them up on myspace. And then they come to my shows and maybe even buy the CD or (god forbid) write bandfic. And beyond any profit, the whole concept of building a community around a shared passion, whether it is music or a book or character or whatever, if people are actively engaged in and participating in the creation of culture, I think that is rad. And that’s why I think the Creative Commons and the Public Domain are so important.

Copyright is basically restricting people from using old material to create innovative new material. As creators and consumers, it is important for us to make sure we don’t get caught infringing, but also doing what we can to fight copyright censors.

Conclusion:

There are two things at work here: Being aware of the law and not getting caught infringing on copyright, but also attempting to change copyright law. Obviously, no one wants to be sued for copyright infringement, but there is something to be said for confronting copyright head on. Recently, Nina Paley made an animated film, Sita Sings the Blues, based on an Indian folk legend, and used recordings from the 1920s by jazz singer Annette Hanshaw, who is virtually unknown in modern times. Though the recordings are now in the public domain, the compositions are not, and the corporate copyright owners were demanding $220,000 for clearance rights, which is WAY more than the movie itself cost to make. Instead of backing down like most people do, she fought them head on, and they eventually brought the price down to $50,000. She ended up borrowing money to settle the clearance, then made gave the work a creative commons attribution/share-alike license. This is a quote from Nina Paley’s website about the film:

“You don’t need my permission to copy, share, publish, archive, show, sell, broadcast, or remix Sita Sings the Blues. Conventional wisdom urges me to demand payment for every use of the film, but then how would people without money get to see it? How widely would the film be disseminated if it were limited by permission and fees? Control offers a false sense of security. The only real security I have is trusting you, trusting culture, and trusting freedom. “

Copyright Basics for Librarians – Radical Reference Skillshare

Origin and purpose:
The purpose of copyright is that it is meant to promote the arts and sciences while still providing incentive for creators. The roots of copyright law really started in Britain in 1710 with The Statute of Anne. What this did was help out authors, who were really being exploited by publishers, who were reprinting works to the detriment of authors. Originally just for printed works, but now copyright is involved in almost every aspect of commercial life, from movies and music to databases and blogs.

Requirements for protection:
It used to be that you had to file for copyright, but now, copyright is awarded to any original work in fixed medium. You no longer need to file for copyright; it is automatic once you create something in a tangible form. So an idea is NOT copyrightable, but a drawing or poem (even if scribbled on a napkin) IS.

Exclusive Rights:
There are a few rights that all copyright owner receive automatically.
Produce copies
Import/Export the work
Create derivative works
Performance rights (the right to perform or display the work)
Sell or assign rights to another
Broadcasting rights (the right to transmit the work by radio or video)

Duration:
The rights are the easy part. The duration of copyright terms is where it gets super complicated. The Statute of Anne gave authors rights for 14 years. Between 1790-1962, there wasn’t much of an increase in the length of copyright terms, but since 1976, modern the duration for U.S. Copyright Law has nearly doubled. The Sony Bono Copyright Extension Act of 1998 froze the Public Domain for 20 years. [When works pass out of copyright protection, they enter the Public Domain. This essentially means that they are owned by the public and that people can do whatever they want with them, including creating derivative works. A good current example is that new book, Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. ] The Sony Bono Copyright Extension Act froze the Public Domain for 20 years. So every year that passes, new materials are supposed to enter the public domain, but this froze it so no materials will enter the public domain until 2019. A lot of people call this The Mickey Mouse Protection Act because Mickey Mouse was about to enter the public domain when this Act was passed. Don’t think that that was a coincidence.

SO what we see is that copyright is really on a spectrum: On one end, we have exclusive rights of the copyright owner, and on the other end, we have the Public Domain, where works are public property and anyone can access and use. It is the middle ground where librarians really come into play.

Does anyone know what Fair Use is? Basically, Fair Use allows for the use of copyrighted material for scholarly and educational purposes. Copyright law is supposed to NOT stifle creativity, so this is where Fair Use comes into play. Fair Use can cover teachers showing videos to their classrooms, to people remixing videos for satirical purposes or to provide social commentary.

To make it easier on librarians and teachers who do not have time to sort through complex copyright law, Fair Use Guidelines were created to show the minimum and maximum amount of copying of materials for use in non-profit, educational settings. Now, as they are guidelines, they are not law at all. So what you should really do is look at the guidelines, and if they show that your use DOESN’T fall under fair use, then you should do a fair use analysis.
Digital Materials

Just when we thought copyright was getting easier to manage, digital materials came along and screwed everything up. Corporate copyright owners have worked hard to make copyright law benefit them, and for the most part it is working.

The Digital Millenium Copyright Act of 1998 was the first amendment to really attempt to update copyright law for the digital environment. The DMCA is really controversial, as it really tips copyright law in favor of copyright holders. A few key components of the DMCA are that it allows libraries and archives to make up to three copies for replacement or preservation purposes, gives copyright owners the right to control or deny access to digital materials, and has criminalizing the circumvention of DRMs.

DRMs are the protections that copyright owners and vendors use to restrict access and manipulation of digital materials. So what this does is it gives copyright holders the power to control or to deny access to digital materials protected by copyright.

At first, librarians and other educators were just using digital materials freely without really thinking about copyright issues. Those are now the days of old, because the TEACH Act changed that all. The TEACH Act is much more stringent than Fair Use Guidelines, because it is more of a checklist of things you can and cannot do, and certain requirements you have to follow. Because digital materials are pretty important in serving distance students, The TEACH Act really affects distance education.

Along with that, one of the major things about digital materials is that they are not really viewed as materials at all. I know that sounds a little confusing, but vendors are actually taking the stance that when we buy digital materials, we are not actually buying them, but just leasing them. And what that really does is it gives and exorbitant amount of power to corporations and disempowers the end-users. First Sale doesn’t apply to digital materials, because we cant just buy an e-book or a CD and put it up on the catalog for instant access. We have to go through certain vendors who grace us with the ability to do that.

Course Packets:

Generally, royalties are paid for each copyrighted work used in a course packet, and the cost is passed on to the students. Some maintain that the first time you use the articles, it is fair use, but if you are using the material over and over, then you should pay (because there will be an effect on the market).

Course Reserves:

There hasn’t been any kind of agreement on how many or long articles can stay on reserve, so it is all up in the air. Many claim that if they own an original copy, then they never have to get permission, as that original copy was paid for (probably at a high price) with the intent that many students would be using it. Oxford University Press recently filed suit against Georgia State University on the issue of e-reserves. Here is the interesting issue: There is no real rule about this, no CONFU guidelines, but libraries have been paying anyway, erring on the side of caution. This has essentially created a market that didn’t exist before. So now that GSU is being sued, the publishers filing suit can claim a market loss, which greatly helps their case. In the wake of this, schools are now creating guidelines to prevent this from happening, but it is a serious issue. Some have even suggested that GSU was deliberate in getting caught so they could advocate for fair use in these types of cases.

Conclusion
To wrap up, some of the basic tenants of libraries – circulating or preserving materials – is completely enmeshed in copyright law, so its really important for us as librarians to be down with copyright law. I would say, in the spirit of Radical Reference, that we have a social responsibility to protect the interests of the public by providing access to materials in order to create an informed community and advance the arts and sciences. Copyright works best when there is a balance between the interests of the public and that of the creators; since copyright law is changing to give more power to the copyright holders, it is in our publics interest that we stay informed and work to make sure user rights aren’t restricted.

Fair Use Analysis